[tense music] [police siren] hey, you got a permitfor those guns? i got your permit right here. [80's synthpop music] catchy tune. [sound effects andshooting from arcade games] [geek in arcade]fuck this game. fuck you![arcade game beeping]

[static from arcade game] [clanking and whirringof machinery] [car horns honkingand people screaming] [people screamingand baby crying] [signal from police walk talkie]we need backup, we need kung fury. [gun shots and screamingin the distance] [seductive 80's saxophone music] yeah, that's my bicep. [telephone ringing]

one second babe. hello? [police officer] we got an arcade machine down here going crazy, it is killing everybody, it's destruction, chaos, terror- [crunching of plastic] what are you gonna do? my job. [80's synthpop action music] [car engine revving]

[people screamingand dog whimpering] [car horns honkingand car accelerating] [80's technopop action music] [interference in music] [music kicks back in] [futuristic gun shots] [end of 80's technopopaction music] game over. [static from failing machinery]

[kung fury] i'm a cop and damn good at my job. it all began years ago. in the line of duty, me and my partner were chasing down a mysterious kung fu-master. [kung fury] you're under arrest, punk. show us your hands. [clinking ofmetal clasps closing] good work, dragon.

that crazy stunt could've killed us both. but goddammit, you're the best partner i've ever had. thanks, i learned from the best. you're like a father to me.[sword swinging] [kung fury] with one fatal blow, he hit my partner. [squelching] [kung fury] i could tell he was dead straight off. [tense musicand kung-fu master grunting] [eery echoingand dripping of blood]

[kung fury] before i could pull the trigger i was hit by lightning and bitten by a cobra. i blacked out. [eery echoingand soft tinkling] and saw images of ancient shaolin temples and monks, mastering the art of kung fu. there was an ancient prophecy, about a new form of kung fu so powerful, only one man could master it.

the chosen one. when i woke up, i saw the kung fu master running towards me. i could feel my body mutate into some sort of kung fu freak of nature. [kung fu master screaming] [80's synthpop musicwith a kung fu undertone] you! you are the chosen one!

- knock, knock. - who's there? knuckles. [kung fu master screamingin the distance] [tense musicand fire crackling] [kung fury] as a memento, i put on a strip of cloth from the dead kung fu master. i decided i would use my new super kung fu powers to fight crime. so, i became the best cop in the world.

i became, kung fury. [80's synthpop music fades out] [static from radioand noises from the city] [chief mcnickles]i don't wanna hear it kung fury. i just got back from city hall, $50 million worth of damages, and i got the mayor up my ass like a fag on viagra. how am i going to explain this to the press, hm? you just destroyed an entirecity block for christ's sake. didn't you tell meto block it out?

i told you do it by the book. cut the bullshit. nobody else could have stopped that arcade machineand you know it. [chief mcnickles]oh man, listen to me kung fury. you need to start followingthe rules like the rest of us, so i'm assigning youa new partner. what?hell no, i work alone. not anymore you don't.

say hi to your new partner,triceracop. very nice meeting you kung fury, looking forward toworking with you. you're like a father to me. i work alone. either you team upwith triceracop, or you're off the case. i'm not off the case, i quit.

[80's synthpop musiccoming from radio] yeah yeah, i did the blood test. it was positive, yeah? [girl on phone] what the hell are you talking about? yeah no problem. [hitler]give me the phone. [hitler dialling phone] what the hell is this? [telelphone ringing]

- chief mcnickles speaking. - is this the police? - yeah, this is the police.- fuck you! [police officersshouting hysterically] [bullets pinging off wallsand glass smashing] malfunctioning? [phone beeping] i need someoneto trace that call! but that's impossible! [hackerman]not for me it isn't.

[rock and roll guitar riff] [kung fury] hackerman, he's the most powerful hacker of all time. follow me. [hackerman]i was able to triangulate the cell phone signal and trace the caller. his name is adolf hitler. hitler, he's the worst criminal of all time. do you know him, sir? i guess you could say that.

in the 1940's,hitler was a kung fu champion. [kung fury] he was so good at kung fu, that he decided to change his name to kung fã¼hrer. but he didn't stop there. he knew of the kung fury prophecy, and wanted to claim the throne. he and his posse of nazi soldiers conducted experiments for years. [tense musicwith a kung fu undertone]

but they weren't able to figure out how to master the art of kung fury. and one day, he disappeared from the face of the earth. and no-one has seen him ever since. until now. i guess he figured if he couldfind and kill the chosen one, he would becomekung fury himself. he must have traveled in time in order to get here,

that's probably whyhe disappeared. so, what're you gonna do? i'm gonna go back in timeto nazi germany, and kill hitler,once and for all. [hackerman]so, how are you gonna do that? i'm not sure. i need some sort oftime machine. wait a minute, using an rx modulator,i might be able to conduct

a mainframe cell direct andhack the uplink to the download. what does that mean? with the right algorithms,i can hack you back in time. just like a time machine. well then, it's hacking time. [80's action musicfades to static] [action music kicks back in] [computer beeping] oh, no!

[interference in80's action music] [silence] [eery echoing and wind blowing] [soft 80's synthpop music] [electrical surge] [music fades out] fuck! that's a laser-raptor. i thought they went extinct thousands of years ago.

[machine gun shootingand laser-raptor wailing] [soft, indigenous music] [bird cawing in the distance] who are you? my name, is barbarianna. [rock and roll music] what year is this? it's the viking age.

that explains the laser-raptor. fuck! i went too far back in time. you need to get outof this valley. this place is swarmingwith laser-raptors. i'll meet you at the god's drop.katana can help you get there. who's katana? [katana]i'm katana. i can give you a ride to asgard. a ride on what?

[upbeat rock and roll music] [rock and roll music fades out] so, who are you? i'm a cop from the future. i was sent back in timeto kill hitler, but i accidently wenttoo far back in time and ended up in this place. i know someonewho might be able to help you. thor!

[dramatic music] [thor]behold! it is me, thor! son of odin and protector of mankind. check out my pecs. your pecs are epic. [thor]thanks bro! so, anyway. thor, this is kung fury,he's a cop from the future. [kung fury]yeah, i need to get tonazi germany and kill hitler...

- so if you could help me with--- stop! [sounds of a storm brewing] hammer time. [dramatic 80's synthpop music] walk through this portal andyou'll end up in nazi germany. good luck to you kung fury! thanks thor! well,looks like this is my ride. hey, future cop,where are you going?

you know what.here, take my number. and use this phone to call me. it's a personal, transportable,cellular telephone. it features 645 channelcapacity, 10 number speed dial, and an electronic security lock. this revolution in communicationcould make it possible for more and more people to have a phone in their car! tank you. i'm the greatest kung fu master of all time,

right guys? [crowd cheering and whistling] [hitler]thank you! [tank engine revvingand accelerating] [kung fury]i'm disarming you. my arm! my arm! [arm mimics the soundof a helicoper] [dull thud] [low intense drone]

kill him! [clamor of nazi soldiers] [nazi soldiers groaning in painand kung fury grunting] you don't need that spine, it's holding your back! [music stops abruptly] [soft, sad music] [nazi soliders groaning] [kung fury groaning in pain]

[hitler]a-ha! fuck you kung fury. now nothing can stop me and my army of death. [hitler laughingand crowd applauding] [music builds] [crowd whistling and cheering] thank you guys! [music builds to a crescendoand then fades out] what the fuck?

[crowd chattering hysterically] [thunder and lightening] [low rumbling] [thunder clapping] [eery echoing] [beeping and whirringof machinery] [nazi soldiers prattlingand laser-raptor snarling] kill them! [music ends abruptlyand shooting of guns]

[nazi solder screaming] [80's technopop action musickicks back in] [futuristic gun shotsand crowd screaming in agony] [nazi soldier groaning in pain] alright hitler, the gig is up, show me your hands. [triceracop gruntingin confusion] [bird cawing] [triceracop]hackerman,have you seen kung fury? [hackerman]oh, no! we were too late.

[upbeat 80's synthpop music] [cartoon kung fury gruntsin confusion] who the hell are you? my name is cobra. i've been expecting youkung fury. i'm your spirit animal. what the hell is this place? this is heaven,i'm afraid you're dead. what?

but it looks so real. yeah, no it's totally real. mr. cobra, i'm a police officer. i need you to send meback to earth, pronto. i'm sorry,i can't help you with that. you see, you're dead. - you're under arrest!- what? for obstruction of justice, you're breaking the law! [action musicwith dramatic singing]

[cartoon kung fury screamingand music fades out] what the hell happened? i hacked away all ofyour bullet wounds kung fury. thanks! [bird cawing andlaser-raptor shrieking] i want to welcome youand your friends to germany. we are not so different,you and i. i mean we both gotgood style, you know? red, you know?

so, that's cool! we both like doing moves,check it out! [hitler grunts in exertion] and killing people, i love it, you clearly do, too! and that's cool! join me, we could be brothers,we are so alike. it's almost likewe finish each other's... - balls.- what?

[hitler groans in pain] oh, my,not much left of him is there? the important thing is thathe is gone. sorry i doubted you triceracop. you're the best damn partner i've ever had. i came back in timefor you kung fury, because, damn it,i love you. [triumphant 80'ssynthpop music] team work is very important.

so, what happens now kung fury? well, i need tohead back to the office. looks like it's gonna be hell of a lot of paperwork. [car horns honkingand car engine accelerating] open the doors, hoff. i'm sorry fury, i can't let you do that. open the doors, hoff! i'm sorry, i can't let you open the doors kung fury. goddammit, open the doors!

- sorry i can't-- - open the doors! did anyone ever tell you not to hassle the hoff 9000? oh, hoff 9000,you son of a bitch. [interference in musiccoming from radio] piece of shit. [interference in radio signal] [tense drum machine music] [triceracop] oh, my, not much left of him is there? [kung fury] the important thing is that he is gone.

wait a minute, i've seen that symbol before... somewhere. hitler!

edward -you might have bought the phone but whoever hacked it they are the one who owns it. any device that is on here you can operate independently. shane - so it is true, you can get into the phone and turn the camera on? e - ya, absolutely. s - is there a way you can tell if your phone has been hacked? e - perhaps the most terrifying thing is if your phone had been hacked you would never know. s - this week on vice: the inside story of america's surveillance program. e - i'm going to be detaching the camera.

the devices that you paid for, watch you, on our behalf. s - it seems like technology allows, almost anyone to spy, on almost anyone. e - even if you trust the government today... what happens when it changes? when eventually we get an individual who says... "you know what? let's flip that switch." s - first of all i'd like to say thank you for meeting us today here at the storied hotel metropol in moscow. i say storied because for the longest time it was the

designated hotel where foreigners were allowed to stay. and it was rumoured that every room was bugged. e - *laughs* i would definitely presume that in any world capital when you're in a major business hotel... if the hotel rooms aren't pre-wired for surveillance they can be wired almost immediately. s - for the last 3 years, a controversy has raged about the us governments surveillance of its own people. the terrorist attack last december in san bernardino, ca

brought this debate to a tipping point. reporter - 14 people are dead and 21 people have been injured after a married couple opened fire at the inland regional centre in san bernardino. reporter #2 - a judge is ordering apple to help the fbi break into a cellphone used by one of the san bernardino shooters. reporter #3 - apple is saying "look this is something that no court can order us to do. tim cook - what is at stake here is...

can the government compel apple to write software that would make hundreds of millions of customers vulnerable around the world? obama - if it is possible to make an impenetrable device. how do we solve or disrupt a terrorist plot? s - but according to the most famous whistleblower in the world, the government already had this capability. s - as it turns out, snowden, was proved right. because the fbi was able to crack the iphone,

without apples help. now edward snowden remains a polarizing figure in america. politics. because on one side he's considered a hero on the level of woodward and bernstein who broke the watergate scandal. but on the other, he is considered a traitor who jeapardized american intelligence and security around the world senator burr - a traitor! a traitor to the united states.

senator nelson - these records were spread about publicly by edward snowden. intentionally. recklessly. and i might say illegally. s - so we went to moscow to speak to this controversial figure about the state of surveillance in america today. so nsa, cia, fbi... can they get into my phone?

e - yes. s - can they get into my laptop? e - absolutely. s - ipad...? e - anything. as long as they can dedicate people, money and time to the target... they can get it. s - and what kind of information can they get from my phone for example? e - uh, everything in your contacts list.

every sms messenger that you use. every place that has ever been where the phone is physically located. even if you've got gps disabled because they can see which wireless access points are near you. every part of a private life, today, is found on someones phone. we used to say a mans home is his castle. today, a mans phone is his castle. s - my question to you is why don't more people care? because we've gone from cold war, pre-9/11

to effectively a police state that is watching your every move and everyone went "meh". why? e - part of it is the fact it happened invisibly. if a politician had said we want to watch everybody in the country. people would have been up in arms about it. in the wake of september 11th the vice president of the united states, dick cheney, and his personal lawyer david addington conspired with a number of top level officials

in the nsa and other agencies to change not only what they considered to be the legal restraints but actually the culture of surveillance in the intelligence community. they moved from the exceptional surveillance to the surveillance of everyone. technology has changed, instead of sending people to follow you; we use the devices that you pay for. the services and the systems that surround you invisibly every day to watch you, on our behalf.

metadata, is the fact that a communication occurred. s - so i called you e - you called me, when you called me, where you called me from. this information is the same thing that's produced when a private investigator follows you around all day. they can't sit close enough to you in every cafe to hear every word you're saying. but they can be close enough to know when you left your house,

what the license plate of the car you're driving with, where you went, who you sat with. how long you were there, when you left, where you went after that. that's metadata. s - now all of this metadata it turns out is actually remarkably easy to get at. in fact you don't even have to hack the phone at all. all you need is technology that is readily available. called an imsi catcher that can intercept your phones

metadata remotely. e - every phone has what's called an imsi. s - uh huh. e - which is actually for the sim card. that's your subscriber information. what your name is; what your phone number is. all of our devices, as they travel throughout the day are constantly broadcasting in sort of this radio orchestra. imsi catchers masquerade as the legitimate cellphone tower.

so when you're saying "hey - cell phone tower" "can you hear me?" - instead a man in the middle, somebody with an imsi catcher in the trunk of their car. in a briefcase in their office has it send a louder signal back to you, than the cell phone tower, then say "i'm the cell phone tower". s - now this sounds pretty complex. how hard is it to make or buy an imsi catcher?

e - it's incredibly easy. you buy these things off the shelf. every police department in the united states seems to be buying these things nowadays. s - really? now the use of imsi catchers by police recently caused international headlines when a newspaper in norway attempted to track the amount of imsi catchers in oslo. and actually found so many that they questioned

if their tracker was working properly. after hiring a cyber security firm they discovered not only were they indeed correct but that these devices were actually being used to spy on their own government facilities. andreas - 5 places in oslo the measurement was so serious that they could say with high probability that there was imsi catchers. the most clear signs was in the area of the prime ministers office and the ministry of defense. we also got alerts up in the embassies area.

and in front of the parliament. s - and while the police initially denied using imsi catchers extensively; in the face of overwhelming evidence they were eventually forced to admit it. a - the police stated that "we are using imsi catchers at minimum once a week." that was the first time, ever, that the police had gone out and stated how often they were using these kinds of equipment. in all the areas that we detected signals, thousands of

people are flowing by every day. so that's, i think that is some of the problem with these kinds of technology because you are looking for one number but you are, in the same phase, you are collecting hundreds of numbers. s - now this technology is being used by police forces all over the world. in fact in new york city alone imsi catchers have been used more than a thousand times, by police, since 2008

and that's just the tip of the iceberg. as they are now being used all around us... all the time e - there is a joint cia/nsa program called appropriately enough, "shenanigans". shenanigans was a project to mount on airplanes an imsi catcher and fly it around the city. they can tell when you've travelled, they can tell when you move and this all happens without warrants. s - right.

e - shenanigans was happening in yemen. that is where it was being tested and you go "well look this is being used to aim missiles at terrorists." i'm okay with that. but these programs have a disturbing frequency, a tendency... to move from war front to home front. e - and within six months of shenanigans being reported, the wall street journal reported,

that the same technology was now being used domestically inside the united states. the fbi has a specific aviation unit that is flying around cities and frequently they are monitoring protesters instead of violent criminals. the black lives matter protests in baltimore, the fbi was flying surveillance over the protesters. s - now this has been cause for alarm because modern surveillance technologies are

already being used by oppressive regimes to suppress government opposition. "allahu akbar" (over and over) ala'a - since 2011, bahrain has witnessed some of the largest protests in its history where there are thousands of protesters taking to the streets. who are demanding more democratic reforms and a change in regime. s - ala'a shehabi is a bahraini activist who found herself the target

of government surveillance. a - in 2012 i was briefly arrested. immediately after i was released, i received a string of 4 or 5 emails that were very suspicious to me. i suspected that this was a cyber attack so i immediately sent the suspicious emails to my colleague morgan, at citizen lab, it actually turned out that this spyware was produced and operated by a british

and german company called finfisher. this is a company that specializes in producing hacking software. it claims it sells it to government regimes. so that immediately fitted with my suspicion that this was the bahraini regime. the spyware is capable of switching your microphone on, your camera, it is capable of logging every single thing that you type. there are a handful of key companies, in europe, that are openly marketing, promoting and selling these

tools in arms exhibitions. in european capitals. they are not being used in the name of tackling terrorism. they are being used to keep these regimes in place and in power. s - now to see exactly what type of information a hacked phone can yield, we contacted the same hacker who uncovered the bahraini scandal and asked him to hack one of our own reporters.

using the same type of software that targeted ala'a shehabi. we were able to completely commandeer bens phone and he never knew it. so ben was in pakistan doing a shoot on polio. so you hacked his phone and you figured out who he called morgan - right and so i mean what we've got here is i can see who he is calling and when he called them and how long the calls were. we can actually record his calls, lets have a listen to them.

m - this will also keep a list of bens web browsing history. and so for instance you can see here he is google searching for bbc. you can see news articles that he is writing. checking his twitter. it's sort of like reading someones mind. because you can sort of see what they're thinking while they're on the internet. so we've been location tracking ben. you can even get it to animate and so it will show where ben is at various sort of times. you can see him travelling around the city there

and you can tell exactly where he is. which is obviously you know in terms of keeping on someone a highly desirable thing. think about anything that the phone can do. right, like once you've actually installed this malicious software on the phone, then it's simply a matter of activating the phones capabilities. so i mean the phone has a camera right? well now we can turn on the camera. s - what are these ambient recordings? m - ya so the ambient recording is kind of the invisible microphone, the real sort of spy stuff.

s - so he's interviewing a gitmo detainee - a former gitmo detainee - so i guess when you talk about protecting journalists, protecting your source is a big issue. m - can you be said to be practicing journalism in a traditional sense if you can't guarantee source protection? you may be sort of actively endangering their livelihood, welfare and life. s - now with software like this and the other more commercially available software

it seems like technology allows... almost anyone to spy on almost anyone m - we live in a golden age of convenience enabled by technology. so that means that you and i can be on other sides of the planet and we can have a conversation in real time for no money. technology has enabled convenience of communication but also convenience of surveillance. s - now this so called golden age of technology has essentially made it possible for anyone to spy on anyone else

it begs the question - can people, for example journalists, ever go dark? is that even possible now with these new advancements? how do we go black? e - well so going black is a pretty big ask. for me for example, i really know what i'm doing. s - ya. e - but if the nsa wants to pop my box. you know they're totally going to do it. but if you know you're actively under threat,

if you know your phone has been hacked, these are ways that you can ensure that your phone works for you rather than working for somebody else. you might have bought the phone but whoever hacked it s - that's because third parties can actually turn on your phones microphones and cameras without you knowing it. e - any device that is on here you can operate independently. s - so it's true you can get into the phone and turn the camera on? e - ya, absolutely. so you would turn this guy on

and you'll just heat that guy until the solders molten. because i'm going to be detaching the rhythm cables... that are connecting the camera... as a surface mount device you'll be able to just pull it off like that. s - so this is the camera? what's that? e - this is the other camera. you got 2 cameras in your phone, you got your front facing camera, for sort of the selfies.

and you got your rear facing camera, that's it. i think this one has a multi microphone array which is going to be this guy this guy and this guy. s - but if you take out the microphones then how do you use it as a phone? e - you would add your own external microphone. for example the ipod type earbuds that have the mic integrated on the lanyard.

e - perhaps the most terrifying thing is, if your phone had been hacked you would never know. s - and as vice news reporter jason leopold found surveillance has become so ubiquitious that even the government agencies responsible for policing it are not secure. you got a foia request recently in the mail that is causing quite a stir. j - the way that this all surfaced, dianne feinstein,

she made this extraordinary floor speech. s - as the head of the senate intelligence committee feinstein delivered some shocking allegations. senator feinstein - on 2 occasions cia personnel electronically removed committee access to cia documents. j - she said that the cia had hacked into senate computers while these staffers who worked for her were

writing a report about the cia's torture program. john brennan, the director of the cia said that is proposterous. our only way to look deeper into it was to file a freedom of information act request. so these documents absolutely backed up everything that dianne feinstein said. what's most interesting though, what i would call a smoking gun, john brennan wrote a letter and he said that the cia

staff had improperly accessed your computers. but john brennan never sent this letter to dianne feinstein. they said that this letter was mistakenly turned over to us. it was an accident and it actually should not have been released to us and they asked us not to, uh, post it. s - because it's embarrassing? j - completely embarrassing for them. and we declined that request because there was no national security concerns in this letter. this is simply

something that john brennan did not want the public to see after making after making all of these statements about what the cia did not do. s - we now know that the cia officers were in fact spying on the committee charged with keeping them in line. so we spoke to one of those committee members senator ron wyden about the letter than brennan never meant to send. senator ron wyden - this will be the first time i've ever said this publicly.

my sense is there were clearly people at the cia who understood that what mister brennan had done was flat out wrong. and they drafted an apology letter. and yet, mr brennan was just unwilling to publicly acknowledge wrongdoing. this is basically re-writing the law. we are the agency that is required by law to conduct vigorous oversight over the cia. we can't do vigorous oversight over the agency

if the agency we're supposed to be overseeing is in fact secretly searching our files. s - now senator wyden has become a leader in attempting to reign in our intelligence community. w - director clapper, i want to ask you... e - senator ron wyden said "is the nsa collecting any kind of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of americans?" and james clapper sort of scratched his head james clapper - no sir.

e - and he said no...senator wyden - it does not?e - ...they do not clapper - not wittingly. e - the most senior intelligence official in the united states of america raised his hand and swore an oath to tell the truth to congress. and he lied on camera. he wasn't charged, despite the fact that is a felony; he didn't even lose his job, he's still doing the same thing today. within a few months he admitted that he had lied. he said his answer was too cute by half

and the least untruthful statement that he felt he could have made at the time. w - my view is that if you're going to protect the american people you've got to embed those protections into law. and we of course have been very concerned about with what i call "secret law" s - and at the heart of that secret law is fisa

the foreign intelligence surveillance act. which authorised secret courts to greenlight domestic spying programs w - the government persuaded the court to say it was okay to collect metadata. when you read the fundamental law you didn't hear anything about metadata and collecting millions of records on law abiding people.

that was all done in secret. and in fact i went to the floor of the senate and i warned that when the american people found out how that law had been secretly interpreted they would be very angry. and that in fact was the case. s - now public anger hasn't been enough to end many of these programs. but increasingly the question isn't whether or not they can be justified under law but whether they're actually effective

in the first place. recently there were attacks in paris. what happens when you have a terrorist attack like that- within security agencies, the nsa for example? e - i was working at the nsa during the boston marathon bombing investigation. and as it was playing on the news myself and colleagues were in the cafeteria and we turned to each other

and said... i'll bet you anything... we already knew about these guys in the databases. and in paris, i'm certain that the same conversation happened. this is really the legacy of mass surveillance. it's the fact that when you are watching everyone you know who these individuals are, they're in the banks, you had the information you needed to stop, to prevent even the worst atrocities.

but the problem is when you cast the net too wide, when you're collecting everything, you understand nothing. we know for a fact that it is not effective for stopping terrorist attacks and it never has been. the white house appointed 2 independent commissions in the wake of my disclosures in 2013 to review mass surveillance programs

and go "alright do these have value? should they be changed? should they be reformed?" they looked at the evidence, the classified evidence, and they found wow, despite the fact that this been going since 2001, it had never stopped a single terrorist attack in the united states. and that's after monitoring the phone calls of everyone in the country. s - so that's a huge point. so two independent

commissions, started by the white house, said "mass surveillance has not stopped a terrorist attack." e - and both of them found that these programs should be ended and then they came up with forty two different points for reform that they recommended should happen to restrict the use of these powers. the last time that i saw a review of this, the president only adopted three of the forty two points.

s - why? e - because they would limit the exercise of executive power. this is something that you have to understand is not about this president... it's about...the presidency. it's clear that the public opposes a majority of these policies. and yet politicians, because the word terrorism is involved, they can't justify being the one to stand

and mount the vote, because they know there will be another terrorist attack. s - because if they say "no we're not doing this" and then there is a terrorist attack, they get painted with that brush. e - they know they'll be blamed by their political opponents and they're right. of course their political opponents will do this it's the easiest thing in the world to do. and unfortunately it's quite effective. because we live in a time where the

politics of fear are the most persuasive thing on the table. s - now while the debate over surveillance continues to rage here in the us, edward snowden remains a fugitive for his revelations about the nsa. and he had a cautionary statement about what's at stake. when the world was first introduced to you, you made a statement about turnkey tyranny...

what did you mean by that? e - it means that even if you trust the government today what happens when it changes? in our democracy we're never more than 8 years away from a total change of government. suddenly, everybody is vulnerable to this individual and the systems are already in place. what happens tomorrow, in a year, in 5 years, in 10 years,

when eventually we get an individual who says "you know what? lets flip that switch... and use the absolute full extent of our technical capabilities to ensure the political stability of this new administration." when we think about the future and where we go from here the question is are we going to change?

and enter sort of a quantified world where everywhere you've been, everyone you talk to, it's indexed it's analyzed, it's stored and it's used. maybe against you. cop - within our technologies here we have our license plate reader system, which we can capture dozens of license plates in a matter of a second. e - or will we recognize the danger of that

and embrace the fact that people should have space to make mistakes, without judgement, to have sort of the unconsidered thought or conversation with your friend. but if that was recorded in a database where you know, you say "i think donald trump should be kicked off a cliff" and donald trump becomes president someday, and then everybody who said that ends up getting thrown off a cliff.

that's a very dangerous world. and i think this really is... the question that... our political structures... are not yet comfortable even discussing. but whether they like it or not, it's a world that is coming and we're going to have to confront.

i warn you.these next items will be more expensive than when you pay someone to make you smile,or do something bizarre in fiverr. this is 46 impossibly cute products you’ll actually use.so. much. cute. by mallory mcinnis and acne toy shop. 1. rainmaker plant watering cloud. when the clouds in the sky aren’t doingtheir job, this little plastic one will step up to thetask. 2. bat clothespins or

bat pegs.this is how dracula does his laundry. all purpose clip. spooky vampire bats foryour washing line. useful clip shaped like sleeping vampire bats. they hang upside down when not in use, sleeping until you need them. perfect for hanging wet washing on the line, pinning up photographs of your loved ones,or memos at work, or keeping the opened bag of cornflakes sealedand fresh. 3. fixie pizza cutter.

imagine ride a bike through a giant pizza? to be honest. the cheese would probably clog up your pedals pretty fast, here's how guys behind the product designtheir stuff. check link to know more. not recommended for mass production if you can make it on your own 4. yolkfish egg separater not to be mistaken for a goldeen pokemon,this yolk fish has egg separating powers that

will disable your shell-to-shell-yolk-juggling.unlike goldeen, however, electric and grass will not kill our little hero. 5. measuring snail.$14.99 cents. slime trail not included (thankfully). colorful and cute, these measuring snailsare guaranteed to raise a smile. they might not be fast, but they are accurate.in both centimeters & inches. available in : red, blue, green, charcoal,and white. 6. ice cream cone ice scraper.made of plastic. scraping ice becomes a bit less of a chorewhen you think of it as scooping ice cream.

7. wall night lights. these aren’t "actual" light switches,they’re led ones powered by 3 aaa batteries. you have the freedom to use this handy lightanywhere. from your entryway to hallway. comes with reusable and removable adhesivetape that won't damage your walls. so you can attach them to whatever surfaceyou wish. other perfect placement?right beside the bed of a little boy or girl who happens to be afraid of the dark. ..or perhaps bat 8. llama salt & pepper shakers

llamas are one of the cutest pack animalsin the world. in fact, there's a whole subculture in theus that dresses their llamas up and has llama fashion shows this pair of 4" tall ceramic llama head salt and pepper shakers are the perfect beastsof burden to transport your spices from the table to your food. just don't irritate them llamas spit when they're irritated. you can raise and teach them some manners

for 10 bucks. 9. plankton pot strainer. keep your pasta in the pot while you strainit using this whale’s “baleen.” pot strainer - food in, water outa creative, fun designed pot strainer looking like a blue whale.it easily strains the boiling water from the pot, leaving the food inside.boiling water resistant and dish washer safe. it's 10.63 inches in length. 10. mana-tea infuser. this guy looks so relaxed that it almost makes

you want to spend some time soaking in a giant tub of tea crafted from food-safe silicone, this lil' guy rests, right along the rim ofyour cup, offering up a slow, relaxing brew. tea leaves not included. 11. full circle tea time to go. take your tea to go with this innovative travel mug in clear heat-resistant glass trimmed

with a cork sleeve. just pop your favorite tea (loose or bagged!), in the silicone tea infuser.fill with hot water and hit the road. bpa free, 19oz capacity. available in purple, green and white. this item will be shipped via standard andis only available for delivery within the contiguous united states 12. pirate corkscrew.

the sommelier’s favorite “waiter’s friend” corkscrew, pull corks like a professional. corkscrew with easy-open lever,foil-cutter, and glass bottle opener. designed like a peg-legged pirate with eye-patch, beard, hook hand, earing, black bandanna and even a parrot. forget blackbeard, “legless” is the hardest working pirate in any virgin party drinks. an adorable way to open up a bottleof .. healthy ginger ale

or bavaria malt. never mind hangover. it has no power here. 13. robot nut crackers. “we’ll crack your nuts for you. we like walnuts the best" what these guys would say to you if you could speak robot. 14. flower power steam releaser. ♫ pasta breeze, makes me feel fine ♫

here's a cheerful way to keep the lid of the pot open so steam can vent. just place flower power on the edge of the pot andrest the lid on it. flower petals will spin occasionally when heat is on. 15. snail funnel. slow and steady wins the race.

(when it comes to pouring liquids through a funnel without slopping) 16. himalaya spice shakers. a whole (mountain) range of flavors. set of 4 glass spice containers.two sizes (2 big and 2 small) to fit different spices removable shaker top for convenient spicefilling fits most spice racks. 17. elephant purse hook. if only this were an "actual" miniature elephant

you could carry around in your purse. 18. moby tooth picks. perfect for a nautical themed dinner party. yeah, those totally exist. 19. house of tissues. you may have mucus running in rivulets down your face but you’re sopping those snotty streams up in the cutest possible way. price: $5.99

20. chef pepper mill. spice up any kitchen with this unique 8.6 inches ceramic chef pepper mill grinder. he’s so charming that you’ll forget to say "when". price: $45. i hope that don't make some shock waves. 21. zoo tunes panda portable bluetooth speaker. this speaker will play music from your iphone ipad,android tablets, ipod, galaxy,

nexus, kindle, and surface. so you can have a dance party with your pal noggin. enjoy up to 10 hours of continuous music onfull charge these adorable compact portable speakers provide great sound quality for use on-the-go use built in rechargeable battery, micro usb , port usb cable included. and 3.5mm aux jack to use with all non-bluetoothdevices. 22. cat iphone case.

i hope you like cats. if you don’t change your ringtone to the sound of a cat meowing, you’re not doing it right. a perfect cure to lower over masculinity orsupermanning. on sale $40. i have warned you. 23. mr. sponge sponge holder. attach him to the inside of your sink and

he’ll drain your sponges in style. 24. elephant snack bowl. a sweet way to serve olives (including a trunk pit deposit). by perpetualkid. on sale: $24 25. critter screen mittens. these critters have microfiber “fur” to keep your screens grime-free. it also grabs dust and wipes away fingerprints,

and smudgesmaking your screen shine once more. works for computer, tablet or phone screen! 26. shower squidsfrom jens widerberg. need a hand? go 20,000 leagues under the shower with this friendly squid equipped with nine, adjustable tentacles for gripping your shampoo,soap and washing extras, without disappearing into the bathroom void!wildly convenient, this functional creature even holds your bottles upside down.so you conquer every last drop.

made in china out of natural latex. wipe down gently with soap and water to clean.designed to hold a soap case with the bar soap inside, not the soap alone. reason for 9 arms (rather than 8).. do you wanna know? each arm is actually the half of one longtube that has a loop in the end. the 9th arm is the other half of the arm thatgoes up through the head and becomes the attachment loop (for easy hanging).recommended for indoor use only. not guaranteed to make you smile every timeyou step into the shower.

27. rubik’s cube fridge thankfully, opening up this fridge is mucheasier than figuring out how to solve a rubix cube product specs: it's a rubik's cube... for your food!, does not actually turn, of course,this cube is forever unsolved, has a warm and a cool setting for keepingfood either warm or cold, officially-licensed rubik's food technology,a thinkgeek exclusive!, rubber feet to protect surface, locking door to prevent spillage,

capacity: 9 cans of soda (with a little extraroom for meat or something) or 18 rubik's cubes (with a little extra roomfor some rubik's magic). includes: fridge, 110v ac power cord (for use in home), 12v dc power cord (for use in car), and replacementsticker pack (not enough to "solve" it). cooling capability: approx. 32-44â°f, heating capability: approx. 131-149â°f, outer dimensions: approx. 11.5" cubed!, bring one home for $149.

28. look hooks.these hooks will turn all of your utensils into cute kitchen pals.they are a real eye candy! attach them to your kitchen tiles and they will be happy to look after your kitchen tools.direction: attach to the kitchen tiles with its 2 strongvacuum hangers and it is ready to roll. 29. match book set. each matchbook looks like a novel that has been banned at some point in the past.featuring

slaughterhouse-five, the adventures of tom sawyer, black beauty, fahrenheit 451 and song of solomon.on sale for: $8. 30. hedgehog dryer buddies they “burrow” into your laundry to keepaway static and soften your clothing. soften, fluff, and scare away static withthis duo of hedgehogs in your dryer. they won’t mind the dark! while you sleep or study, these naturally nocturnal critters burrowinto your laundry to lift and separate, allowing warm air to circulate through eachlayer.

created from cloud-white hypoallergenic plastic,these prickly pets are smitten to snuggle with any type of fabric.lowering costs and chemical levels with their natural skills.this pair of petite hedgehogs from kikkerland prove that one person’s housework is another creature’s habitat! detail:it's dryer-safe plastic. individual dryer balls measure 4 inches inlength, 3 inches in diameter. set of two dryer balls.hypoallergenic. safe for all fabric types.

one of the consumer said this: they really work! i stopped using dryer sheets a year or two ago due to severe allergies.i bought these on a whim, and i can honestly say that these make a huge difference(vs. not using dryer sheets/fabric softener at all) in cutting down static cling.it also seemed like my clothes dried a bit faster too. the plastic is completely odorless even when warm.the black of their noses rubbed off after one or two dryer cycles,but obviously that doesn't affect their functionality. overall, i am delighted with my new

dryer hedgies!price: $9.99 31. bowler hat colander. avoid wearing this on your head during thecooking process if you don’t want to end up serving your hair along with the food. ideal for gentlemen who want to give a touchof class to their pastas and salads. cook fancy with our bowler hat colander! 32. nessie ladle.a nessie sighting in your soup!

the nessie ladle is by ototo and has feetto keep it upright in pots. it is made from 100% nylon and is foodsafe.dishwasher safe, not microwave safe measures around 24 cm x 11 cm x 9 cm. a great kitchen gift for men or women! price: $17 33. cloud catcher cotton swab holdera container to keep your cotton swabs fresh and fluffy as miniature clouds. take your cotton swab storage to a higherplane with the fun and functional cloud. a clear, hinged acrylic case that keeps yourcotton swabs fresh, dry, and ready to use.

cotton swabs not included. 34. ladybug contact lens holder. a delightful way to transport your contacts. let's face it, the lady bug is probably the only bug that anyone would consider cute. you can't really enjoy the natural beauty of atiny lady bug if you don't have your contact lenses in. never lose sight of your contactlens case again. this boldly colored and durable lady bug contact lens case is perfect for home or travel.

weight mere: 0.05 lbs.price: $5 35. bear travel pillow. a bear hug for your neck.this furry friend is all ready to make travel more bearable. when you're tired, it's a cushioning neck pillow. the soft, polyesterfabric is filled with microbeads that provide comfort and support, so that you can restyour head without a kink in your neck. when you're awake and ready to play, simply openthe hidden zipper and turn the pillow inside out. the pillow amazingly transforms intoa soft, cuddly traveling buddy! great for long flights, road trips and other adventures.this pillow is sure to delight young and old.

made in china. made of polyester microbeads. measurements : 12.5". notes care instructions: wipe clean with a damp cloth price: $30 36. penguin mocktail shaker.made of stainless steel to help keep your mocktails chilly. serve up the perfectly mixed "antarctic-ly"chilled bevvy of your guests’ choice with this penguin-shaped mocktail shaker. this drink cart accessory includes a classic cap, strainer, and lid,and impresses with a beak, embossed bowtie,

wings, and webbed feet that garnish every drink with personality!made of stainless steel. measures approximately 9 inches in height,3.5 inches in diameter. max holds 18 fluid ounces,hand wash, andimported quality you can gift this penguin shaped mocktailmixer at housewarming parties, weddings, birthday parties, and other social events.from modcloth.com, or you can check bonanza if the item is not available. 37. giraffe soap dispenser.the soap comes out automatically, so this

guy is perfect for a family bathroom.the homedicsâ® mybabyâ® automatic soap dispenser with training song works with any brand of liquid hand soap.this adorable dispenser automatically dispenses the perfect amount of soap and then plays a training song for 20 seconds as recommendedby center for disease control. the additional drip tray is magnetic and easilyremoves for easy cleaning. help your children have fun while learningproper hand washing technique! additonal details:motion sensor technology provides sanitary, touch-free operation,song function on/off,

uses 3 “aa” batteries, you have to buyseperately. 38. skateboard cutting board. thankfully the “wheels” don’t work. that would be dangerous!. for those who cannot be a minute without yourskate board, here we have the table that will help youmake the best tricks of cooking. 39. yellow submarine tea infuser. this dinky little product is obviously inspired by the beatles' classic song.it's sure to liven up your morning cuppa!

simply place the tea leaves of your choiceinside the yellow submarine and then let it dive to the bottom of yourcup of boiling water and infuse your brew in minutes!the submarine is made of silicone and is dishwasher safe too.on sale: $10. 40. narwhals bbq skewer set. narwhals = your new barbecuing bffs. the mystical, deep-sea hunting narwhals are quite possibly the coolest animals on the planet. (and no we’re not talking linux). in case you’re in the dark on this, the horns protruding from their heads are actually giant canine teeth.

can it get any more epic than that? now you can bring these adorable creatureshome in the form of stainless steel bbq skewers just in time for summer. detail:made of durable stainless steel. wrapped in a sleeve for safe storage & transportation. great for meat, vegetables, & anything you would roast over a fire.perfect for fans of narwhals & internet memes. skewer size: 13.31" long.skewers weight: 7 oz (set of two). price: $34.99 41. nibble cheese board & knife.

it even comes with a little hole to storethe mouse-knife in. nibbled cheese board and knife. it seems that a house mouse has taken up residencein your new cutting board! he's no freeloader though. he'll help you slice and dice your cheese and salami and make everybody go awwwwwwww.fred's nibbled beechwood cutting board goes from kitchen to dining table with ease.the board measures a hefty 8 x 5.5 x 1.38 inches. the knife is durable stainless with a food-safe

silicone handle and fits nicely in the mouse hole for storage. price: $30. 42. pea ice cube traythese pods will make smooth, perfectly spherical ice-cubes. chill out with a glass of lemonade and a handful of perfectly spherical ice cubes.courtesy of this quirky ice tray! featuring two flexible, pod-shaped shells.this dynamic duo fits together and filled with water to create smooth, roundcubes that will have you saying, “more, ‘peas!’”

43. kitty measuring cups. just add two cats of sugar and 1/3 cat of milk. with just one glance at these amazing ceramic measuring cups by one hundred 80 degrees. as featured in weight watchers magazine , each of the clearly labeled, glazed cups resemblesa well-fed feline with teeny paws that set it flat on the counter,and a curved tail for a handle. since these charcoal, grey, slate,and white pets are much too cute to hide in the drawer,why not display them on a safe counter space!

if your pets like to help you make sweetsand treats, these will be the perfect addition to yourmixing bowls and cookbooks. detail:- full ceramic. 1/4 cup measures 2 inches in height,6 inches in diameter; 1/3 cup measures 2 inches in height,6 inches in diameter 1/2 cup measures 2 inches in height,7 inches in diameter; 1 cup measures 2.5 inches in height,8 inches in diameter. - hand wash.- not microwave safe. - import quality.

price: $34.99 whole set. 44. feeding frenzy seagull toothpicks. ever tried to picnic at the beach, only tobe harassed by ravenous seagulls? with our feeding frenzy party picks, yourguests can swoop in for the best tidbits. our scavenging feeding frenzy seagull picksare for the birds! well not really, but they seem to be attackingyour favorite plate of appetizers like they own the joint!invite our fearless seagull picks to your next clambake or party.great addition to the beach house or gift for the consummate weekend beach goer!

includes 16 plastic picks.current price: $9.99. 45.totem box by studio arhoj.handmade wooden boxes. cat, owl and bird. each totem contains a different interior withmany or few compartments. built in wood from the sustainable princesstree / 桐 (’kiri’ in japanese). size: 19,5 x 10 cm. 46.eye clock.design by mike mak. simplicity at its best. instead of hands, the eyes move slowly round one showing the hours and one showing the minutes. awesome gear to jump start your lazy brainin the morning.

or every morning.made of: plastic price: $28.44 i have talked too much. sorry for the vo.i have experimented with some setting and i am too lazy to fix it up for your pleasure. care to press subscribe button if you want to pay my hardwork, see you next time, and thanks for watching.

male speaker: i'mreally happy to welcome our two guests and myfriends here today, steven kotler and jamie wheal. as you know, wellness,optimum living have been big topicsat google for a while. and they are complex issues. i know my colleagues wrestlewith these issues a lot, trying to figure out solutions. and today, what theywill be presenting

and what we'll learnmore about, flow, i think is a big partof this complex puzzle. and so i want to give youa little bit of background with both of these folksbefore we get started. so steven is a "new yorktimes" best-selling author. he's an award-winningjournalist and co-founder of the flow genome project. and he has many books,including "abundance." and his new book,"the rise of superman"

will be the focus on today. his books have been translatedin many different languages. articles have appeared inmore than 70 publications, including "new times magazine,""atlantic monthly," "wired," and "forbes." jamie wheal is theexecutive director and he's a leadingexpert in neurosemantics of ultimate human performance. and he works with fortune 100companies, leading business

schools, youngpresidents' organization, an also red bull, withtheir world-class athletes. so with that, i'm goingto turn it over to steven. [applause] steven kotler: hello. thank you guys for coming out. i very much appreciateyou being here. i want to kind ofjust orientate you a little bit to whatwe're going to do.

i'm going to kind ofgive you an introduction to flow and start breaking downsome of the neurobiology, how it works under thehood and giving you kind of the broadspectrum of importance. and then jamie's isgoing to take over and he's going to talkabout practical applications about how you can getmore flow into your lives. as a way to kindof begin, i want to tell you kind of wherei began with this, which

was when i was 30 yearsold, i got lyme disease. and i spent the betterportion of three years in bed. if you don't know whatlyme disease is like, imagine the worstflea you've ever had, crossed with paranoidschizophrenia. so by the end of it, the doctorshad pulled me off medicines. my stomach liningwas bleeding out. there was nothing else anybodyelse anybody could do for me. and i was functional,5% to 10% of the time.

my mind was totally shut down. my body was in so muchpain, i could barely walk. i was hallucinating. my short-term memory was gone. my long-term memory was gone. it was all gone. and at this point, i wasgoing to kill myself out of practicality. the only thing i was goingto be from here on forward

was a burden to myfriends and my family. and it was really a question ofwhen and not if at that point. and in the middle of all thiskind of negative thinking, a friend of mineshowed up at my house and demanded we go surfing. and it was a ridiculous request. first of all, it hadbeen about five years since i had surfedat that point. and the last timei had surfed, i

had nearly drowned in a bigway of accident in indonesia and wanted nothingto do with surfing. and as i said, i couldbarely walk across the room. and she was a pain in my ass. she wouldn't leaveand wouldn't leave. and kept badgering meand kept badgering me. and after finally aboutthree hours of this, i was like, what thehell, let's go surfing. what is the worstthat can happen?

and they she kind ofwalked me to their car. and they put me in their car andthey drove me to sunset beach in los angeles. and if you know anythingabout surfing in los angeles, you know thatsunset beach is just about the wimpiest beginnerwave in the entire world. and it was summer. and the water was warmand the tide was low. and the waves were crap,like maybe two feet high.

and no one was out. and they walked me out to thebreak, literally by my elbows and kind of helped me out there. they gave me a boardthe size of cadillac. and the bigger the board,the easier it is to surf. this was enormous. and i was out there about30 seconds when a wave came. and i'm not quitesure what happened, muscle memory tookover, whatever.

the wave came. i spun the board around. i paddled a coupletimes and i popped up. and i popped up into acompletely different dimension. my senses were incrediblyincredibly, incredibly acute, i was clear headed forthe first time in years. i felt like i hadpanoramic vision. and time had dilated. it had slowed down.

so that freeze-frameeffect, if you've ever been in a car crash,that was my experience. and the most incrediblething was i felt great. i mean i felt alive, thatthrum of possibility. and it was the firsttime in about three years that i had felt it. and that wave felt so good,i caught four more in a row. and after that fifthwave, i was disassembled. i was gone.

they had to carry me to the car. they put me in the car. they drove me home. they had to put me into bed. and people actually hadto come and bring me food because for 14 days,i couldn't walk again. so i couldn't make it 50feet away to my kitchen to make a meal. and on the 15th day,which was the day

that i could walk again,i got back in my car and i went back to theocean and i did it again. and again, i had this kindof crazy, quasi-mystical experience. and again, it felt great. and the cycle keptrepeating itself. and over about sixmonths' time, when the only thing i was doingdifferent was surfing, i went from about 10%functionality to about 80%

functionality. so my first question waswhat the hell is going on? because surfing isnot a cure for chronic autoimmune conditions,first of all. second of all, i'm ascience writer by training. i'm a rational materialist. and i don't havemystical experiences. and i certainly don't have themin the waves while surfing. the whole thingseemed ludicrous.

lyme is only fatal ifit enters your brain. and i was prettycertain that the reason i was having thesequasi-mystical experiences out in the waves wasbecause i was dying. so where all this startedfor me was a giant quest to figure out what thehell was going on with me. what i discovered was thisaltered state of consciousness i was experiencing hada name, flow states. now, you may know this byother names, being in the zone,

runner's high. if you happen to be abeatnik jazz musician, then you're in the pocket. if you're a stand-up comic,it's called the forever box. the lingo goes on,and on, and on. the term researchersprefer is flow. and they prefer thisterm for a reason. it's actually a technical term. and we'll come backto why in a second.

but in flow, whathappens is attention becomes so focusedon the task at hand that everything else disappears. your sense of action orawareness merge together. so the doer and thebeer become one. a sense of self, our senseof self-consciousness disappear completely. time dilates. so that means it slowsdown like i mentioned.

you can that freeze-frameeffect, like in a car crash. sometimes it speeds up. and five hours will goby in like five minutes. and throughout allaspects of performance, mental and physicalgo through the roof. i'm not going todwell too much on it. i'm just going tokind of explain it. and we're going to goon to a lot of things. but i want to talk aboutwhy flow actually healed me

from lyme disease, justso you guys understand what was going on. we're going to talk later aboutthe neurochemicals involved in flow. all of them significantlyjack up the immune system. more importantly, they resetthe nervous system back towards zero. so they calm you down. an autoimmune conditionis essentially

a haywire nervous system. so the fact that periodic flowstates were calming my system back down is allowing meto form new neural nets. neural nets that didn't leadimmediately back to illness. and this is what kind of gaveme a toehold and possibility to get better. what i alsodiscovered when i was researching flow andlearning all this stuff is that the exactsame state that

helped me get from seriouslysubpar back to normal was helping a lotof other people go from normal up to superman. another thing that ilearned very quickly on is that i really wasnot the first person to come to this conclusion. flow science dates back about150 years, to the early 1870s. by the turn of the century,harvard psychologist and philosopher william jameswas looking at the state.

and he was the firstperson to figure out that the brain can radicallyalter consciousness to improve performance. more importantly was the workof one of james' students, walter bradford for cannon,who was a great physiologist. bradford cannon discoveredthe fight or flight response. and in doing so, he kindof give us our first window into where thisaccelerated performance might be coming from.

this was a very, very big deal. before that moment in time,performance enhancement was essentially agift from the gods. you want a better time in100-yard dash, hermes can help. you want to write a betterpoem, talk to the muses. but walter bradford cannonturned a gift from the gods into standard biology. he give us our very firsttoehold into the mystery. in 1940s, psychologistabraham maslow

picked up on this thread. he discovered thatflow was a commonality among all successful people. and then in the 1960s and '70s,the real revolution began, a guy named mihalycsikszentmihalyi, who is then the chairman ofthe university of chicago psychology department. csikszentmihalyi sort of-- well,maslow discovered the state in successful people.

csikszentmihalyi got curiousabout kind of everybody else in the world. so he made whatis now considered one of the largest globalpsychological studies ever. he went around theworld, asking people about the times in theirlife when i felt their best and they performed their best. and it was a huge group. he started outtalking to experts.

he talked to expertrock climbers, ballet dancers,artists, surgeons. it didn't matter. they all said same thing. they felt their best. and they performed their bestin the state he termed flow. then he blew it outto everybody else. and by everybody else, ireally mean everybody else. he talked to navajosheepherders.

he talked to italiangrape farmers. he talked to elderlykorean women. he talked to japanese teenagemotorcycle gang members. he talked to detroitassembly line workers. everybody he talked totold him the same thing. they felt their best,they performed their best when they were inthe state of flow. csikszentmihalyi also cameup with the term "flow." one of the reasons was when hewas talking to all these people

and they describing thisstate, they always said, well, i'm using myskills to the utmost. i'm pushing myself asfar as i possibly can. but it feels effortless. when i'm in thisstate, every decision, every action leads seamlessly,fluidly to the next. in other words, flow felt flowy. the other major findingthat came out of this, as i hinted at a secondago, flow is ubiquitous.

it shows up everywhere,in anyone, anywhere, provided certain initialconditions are met. what this means is thateverybody from jazz musicians in algeria, to softwaredesigners in mumbai, to coders here in siliconvalley are using flow to massivelyaccelerate performance. and it is a considerablebit of acceleration. flow amplifies all ofour physical skills. so in this state, we are better.

we are faster. we are stronger. we are more dexterous. and we are more agile. so our brains. flow jacks upinformation processing. so when we're in thestate, our senses are actually taking in moreinformation per second. we're processing it more deeply.

so that is using moreparts of our brain at once. and while there's a lotof debate about this, it does appear that we areprocessing it more quickly. and it's not justinformation processing that is getting jacked up. pattern recognition, futureprediction, basically all the fundamental neuronalprocesses in the brain are amplified by flow. as a result ofthis, scientists now

believe flow sits at the heartof every athletic championship. so almost every gold medalthat has ever been won. but it also accounts forsignificant, significant progress in the arts and majorscientific breakthroughs. in business, mckinseydid a 10-year study. they found that top executivesreport being five times more productive in flowthan out of flow. so you got to stopand think about that. normally, i have toexplain to most audiences

that five times isactually a 500% increase. i'm guessing you guys got it. but what that means is youcan go to work on monday, spend monday in flow, taketuesday through friday off, and get as much done asyour steady-state peers. so it is a huge, huge,huge amplification. and that 500% increasemay sound ridiculous until you consideraction-and-adventure sport athletes.

so one of thingsmckinsey discovered is that average people, averageworkers, spend less than 5% of their work life in flow. one place where thisis definitely not true is in action-andadventure sports. action-and-adventuresport athletes, for reasons that jamie isgoing to get into later, have essentially become thebest flow hackers on earth. and this has happened overabout the past 25 years.

and there are reasons for it. and we'll talk about them later. but i want to tell youwhat this has produced. it has produced nearexponential growth in what's termed ultimatehuman performance, which is performance when lifeor limb is on the line. nothing like this hasever happened before. sports progression, it's slow. it's steady.

it's governed by thelaws of evolution. at no point in history doesit quintuple in a decade. yet this is exactly what's beenhappening in surfing, skiing, snowboarding, rock climbing,mountain biking, et cetera, all the action and adventure sports. i'll give you acouple of examples. surfing is a great one. this is athousand-year-old sport. from 400 ad to 1996, the biggestwave anybody has ever surfed

is 25 feet. above that, it'sbelieved impossible. scientists don'tthink it's possible. surfers don't thinkit's possible. today, we're pushinginto 100-foot waves. in snowboarding, in 1992,the biggest gap jump that anybody had evercleared is 40 feet. now, 40 feet is a big jumpto clear on a snowboard. today, as you cantell from this image,

snowboarders are pushinginto 230, 240 foot jumps. so near exponential growth inultimate human performance. the better news, at the sametime all this is going on, they solved acouple of problems. for a long time, one of thebig problems in flow research was the subject of state. how the hell do know if yourresearch subjects are in flow? the good news about actionadventure sport athletes, sort of, is that thelevel of progression

has advanced somuch in recent years that if people are not inflow on their performing, they're ending up inthe hospital or dead. so this gives you a hardresearch set to work with. it's a hard data set. if they lived throughthe experience, we know they're in flow. simultaneously, combined withthis-- flow science, as i said, goes back to 150 years.

most people are really awareof the first 130 years, which is when we figured out thepsychology of the state. and we got really good atthe psychology of the state. what's happened since 1990ishis that our neurobiology has gotten very good. our brain imaging technologyhas gotten very good. eeg has gotten a lot better. and for the veryfirst time in history, we can look underthe hood and we

can figure out what'sgoing on in flow. one of the first things that wediscovered is there's-- the old idea about ultimate humanperformance was based on what's calledthe 10% brain myth. it was actually amisinterpretation of william james. but it's the idea-- and i'm sureyou're all familiar with it-- that most of us onlyuse 10% of our brain. for ultimateperformance, a/k/a flow,

it has to be all of our brainfiring on all of our cylinders. that was the idea. it turns out that'sexactly backwards. what's happening inflow is the brain isn't becoming hyperactive. it's actually startingto deactivate. so this is happeningfor a number of reasons. the simple reason is it'san inefficiency exchange. the brain is a giant energy hog.

it's 2% of our mass. it uses 20% of our energy. so one of the fundamentalrules of the brain is how do i can conserve energy? so consciousprocessing is very slow and it's extremelyenergy expensive. subconscious processing, on theother hand, is very, very quick and it's very, veryenergy efficient. so what's happeningin flow is we

are trading conscious processingfor subconscious processing. as this is happening,huge swatches of the brain are being shut off. the technical term for this is"transient," meaning temporary, "hypofrontality," hypo, h-y-p-o,it's the opposite of hyper. it means to deactivate,to slow down, to shut off. frontality refers tothe prefrontal cortex, the part of your brainthat's back here, that houses all of yourhigher cognitive functions.

so why does timedilate in a flow state? why does it speedup or slow down? because time, as baylorneuroscientist david eagleman figured out, is calculated allover the brain, especially all over the prefrontal cortex. as parts of itstart to wink out, we can no longer separate past,from present, from future. so we're plungedinto what researchers call the "deep now."

to give you another exampleof what goes on in flow, another portion of thebrain that goes off-- we talked earlier about howself and self-consciousness disappears. why does self-consciousnessdisappear in flow? because a portion of the brainknown as the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex,which sort of is responsible for selfmonitoring and impulse control, shuts down.

so self-monitoring, that's yourinner critic, your inner woody allen. that's that nagging,defeatist voice that's always on in your head. in flow, it's turned off. when it turns off, weexperience this as liberation. we are literallyfree from ourselves. creativity goes up. risk taking goes up.

performance goes up. we are much moreopen to experience. so what we've justbeen talking about is neuroanatomy,where in the brain something is taking place. if you really want to kind ofmap an experience in the brain, you have to talkabout neuroanatomy, where in the brain it'staking place, neurochemistry, and neuroelectricity,which are the two

ways the brain sends signals. i'm going to talk a littleabout neurochemistry. then jamie's going to pickit up and talk a little bit about neuroelectricity. in flow, we get five of themost potent neurochemicals the brain can possibly produce. so all of these are performanceenhancing neurochemicals. norepinephrine anddopamine enhance focus. they tighten focus.

they drive us more into the now. it also speeds upmuscle reaction time. they lower signal tonoise ratios in the brain also so we have morepattern recognition. anandamide is a pain reliever. but it also speeds up orincreases lateral thinking, thinking outside the box. so patternrecognition is defined as the linking ofsimilar ideas together.

lateral thinking is the linkingof disparate ideas together. that goes up in flow. endorphins, very, verypotent painkillers and very, very powerfulsocial bonding chemicals. and serotonin keepsus calm throughout. that's the chemical at theheart of the prozac revolution. so the thing you needto know about all of these neurochemicals,besides the fact that they up performance, ishow they impact motivation.

so for those of you who don'tknow much about neurochemistry and drugs, all ofthese chemicals are incredibly potentreward chemicals. let's talk aboutdopamine for a second. cocaine is widely consideredthe most addictive substance on earth. when someone snorts cocaine,all that actually happens is dopamine floodsinto their brain and then the brainsblocks its re-uptake.

so the substance is inyour brain for longer. norepinephrine-- let me goback-- norepinephrine is speed or ritalin. anandamide is thesame psychoactive that's inside of marijuana, thc. endorphins are opiates. and just to give youan example, there are about 20different endorphins in the brain and the body.

the most common one is100 times more potent than medical morphine. and serotonin isessentially mdma. the point here is that whenall five of these chemicals flood into yourbrain, it produces an extremely, extremely,extremely addictive experience. flow is arguably the mostaddictive experience on earth because it's probably theonly time, or the only time that we know of, when allfive of these chemicals

get flooded intoyour brain at once. researchers don't likethe word "addictive." it has very negativeconnotations. so they prefer "autotelic,"which means an end in itself. what this basically means isthat once an experience starts producing flow, we willgo extraordinarily far out of our way toget more of it. which is why researcherstalk about flow as the source code ofintrinsic motivation.

so why does thisapply in daily living? one reason is, as a recentgallup survey pointed out, 71% of americanworkers are disengaged or activelydisengaged on the job. the other 29% havejobs that produce flow. so we really know what thesolution is to this problem. the other thing iwant to talk about, flow doesn't justamp up motivation. it also massivelyjacks up creativity.

it's hard to putnumbers on this. we did a kind of a loose studyat the flow genome project. and i say loosenloose and preliminary. and people reported a 7ximprovement in creativity. to give you anotherexample of this, an australian study--it's a neat study-- they took 40 people. they give everybody a reallytricky brain teaser to solve. nobody could solve it.

they induced flow artificiallyusing transcranial stimulation. they literally tookan electric pulse and knocked out theprefrontal cortex and basically inducedtransient hypofrontality. 23 people solved theproblem in record time. so creativity goesmassively through there. again, this comes downto neurochemistry. so creativity as askill is usually, not always, butusually recombinatory.

it's the product of a novelidea bumping into an old thought to create somethingstartling new. so if you want toincrease creativity, you have to increaseall of those things. well, norepinephrine anddopamine, they tighten focus. the brain is taking in moreinformation for a second. so it's heighteningour access to novelty, which is on the front endof the creativity equation. because they lower signal tonoise ratios in the brain,

they are also uppingpattern recognition, so our ability tolink ideas together. and then anandamide isincreasing lateral thinking or our ability to linkdisparate ideas together. so literally the state offlow surrounds creativity. and what's really interestinghere is creativity, as most of you i'msure are aware, is a quality that'sreally, really desirable. ibm did a global survey.

i think it was 1,500 ceos. of the quality mostnecessary in a ceo today, creativity wasthe number one answer. yet how to teach creativity? how do we teach people to bemore creative, a big problem. teresa amabile atharvard did a study where she discoveredthat not only are people more creative inthe state of flow, but that heightenedcreativity actually

outlasts the stateby a couple of days. which suggests-- and morework needs to be done-- but it suggests thatthe state of flow actually trains the brainto be more creative. the other things theseneurochemicals do is they exist to kindof tag experiences. so a quick shorthand forlearning and memory, the more neurochemicals that show upduring experience, the greater chance that experience movesfrom short-term holding

into long-term storage. neurochemicals are essentiallya big tag on experience. it says, important,save for later. so flow is a gigantic dumpof potent neurochemicals. so this has a radicalimpact on learning. in studies run bythe us military by darpa in advancedbrain monitoring, which is a team incarlsbad, california, they again inducedflow artificially,

two different ways. they used transcranialdirect stimulation and they also usedneural feedback. and they found thatsnipers in flow learned an average of230% faster than normal. they then repeatedthis same study with novices,nonmilitary personnel. and they found thatthe time it took to get from novice to expertby artificially inducing flow

could be cut in half. so what this tells us isthat malcolm gladwell's famous 10,000 hours to mastery,flow cuts them in half. so this is where i'm goingto stop with learning, and creativity, andmotivation because i think those are three big categoriesthat apply in everybody's life. as a way of kind oftransitioning into jamie, what i want to say is what has alsocome out of all this research is not just what'sgoing on in flow.

and because we've had theseathletes as a data set, we can figure outwhat they are doing to get into flow so successfullyand we can work backwards. and we can apply thisknowledge across all domains in societies. so what we've discovered isthat flow states have triggers. these are preconditionsthat lead to more flow. i'm going to turn it overand let jamie talk about this and why they're so important.

jamie wheal: thank you. so about 2,000 years ago, therewas this epic, "old testament" rap battle between rabbihillel and the pharisees. and the phariseeschallenged him. they said, ok, rabbi hillel,you think you're a hot shot. can you stand on one legand recite all of scripture? and he said yes, i can. and he did it. and he stood on one leg.

and he said dounto others as you would have them do unto you. the rest of scriptureis mere commentary. and here at google,it's your guys' world to be organizing theworld's information. and while that isambitious and noble, you guys know, too,that it's the insights we gain, it's not simplythe data we gather, that makes a difference.

and where we are todayis truly drowning in information andjust as we always have been, starvingfor motivation. we know better. we know we're supposed to eatreal foods, mostly plants, not too much. we know we're supposedto do work that matters. we know we're supposedto practice gratitude. we know that meditationis supposed to be amazing

if we ever get around to itand can sit still long enough. we know all this stuff. but if you just-- a quickglance at the stats behind me. look at the toll. we are less healthy. we are more obese. there's higherworkplace injuries. there's dollar valuesattached to this stuff. lifetime fitness,arguably the kind

of access toembodiment and wellness for like the suburbanmasses, 75% attrition rate. and that's aninternal statistic. 75% of the peoplethat say yes, i want you to take my $150 amonth, i want the outcome, never show up again. and most chillingly, astudy at harvard conducted-- that, hey, when you are facedwith a chronic lifestyle disease, diabetes,heart disease, smoking

chronic stress, and yourdoctor says, hey, look, here's the deal. you really have tochange your ways and if you don't,it might kill you. this is what we're left with. seven out of eight of uswould rather die than change. mind boggling. so back to these guys. [inaudible] is not just kind ofnoodling around on the sides.

they actually have afull-bore research project. it is global. it is interdisciplinary. it's called thequantified warriors. so forget you're kind ofquantified self meet-ups here in the valley. these guys are buildingthese supersoldiers of 2030. and what they're doingis sort of alternately fascinating andhorrifying, depending

on your point of view. but there's somethingreally interesting that's been going on. and steven talked alittle bit about there's a 150 years of research. the last 10 to 20 years hasbeen getting super-interesting. and if i was in yourseats, i'd be saying, ok, this sounds ok, cool. but how come idon't know about it?

if it was really all that,we'd know about it right now. and there's actually a problem. there's a reasonwhy we don't have this as sharedworking knowledge. which is really how do we takeinformation and translate it into motivation? because as steven said,flow is autotelic. flow has this massiveneurochemical dump. it encodes and rewardsus to do more of it.

and if we could unlock that,intrinsic human motivation, what's possible next? because these guys, thespecial operations forces, yale is working with deltaforce and the rangers, and red bull is working withthe coronado seal team six, these guys are gettingway into the fine details. but they areexplicitly disincented to share this knowledge. one of them wants to stay astep ahead of the bad guys.

and the other guys wantto step up on the podium. so what they've been learninghas not been shared yet. and certainly partof our mission is to actually take thisextreme, the folks who risk their lives fora living, and bring it more into the mainstream. bring it to impactentrepreneurs. bring it to communitiesof innovation where we can harnessthe same rocket fuel.

so to go back andjust kind of shake out three of the more practicaltakeaways of what-- if you remember nothingelse from today, please think through these ones. number one is what wewere just talking about. flow is the source code ofintrinsic motivation reinforced with the most potentneurochemical set we have access to. next, it shortens learning.

which means either i getto spend a lot more time on the couch or i canactually go further in my domains of inquiry. i can learn more. what happens tohuman progression when we can double its efficacy? and lastly, againmihaly csikszentmihalyi, the godfather of flow, dida 10-year global study. and one of theadditional benefits

was that the people who havethe most flow in their lives are in fact the happiest. so as far as the bottomline in optimal psychology, that is the "so what"at the end of it. so to go back to these actionsports athletes as a case study because they've been kindof a fringe population. people don't pay muchattention to them. the notion ski bum and surfbum aren't exactly warm embraces of peoplewho have dedicated

their lives in these domains. but they really havecome up with three very good and transferableways for all of us to get more flow in our life. and the three redeep embodiment. when they are doingthings, they are feeling the forces of gravity. so their proprioceptivesense, like where are my limbs in space,my vestibular sense,

where is my inner ear inrelationship to my hips, compression, weightlessness,rotation, all of these things are giving very strongsensory motor inputs into our body and brain. and as steven was mentioning,cells that fire together, wire together and we createricher and more robust neural networks. so we've somefascinating studies. they did a sort of humanlife-sized frogger experiment

with collegeathletes versus just frat boys and sorority girls. and they said, ok,who's going to do better at this life-size froggergame and who would you put your money on? well, the athletesand the athletes won. but not for thereasons we would think. they didn't win because theyhad faster reaction time. they didn't win because theycould-- explosive box jumps.

they won because they couldprocess complex multivariable equations faster and thenact on that information. so the notion of the dumb jockwas also absolutely wrong. and in comparison--so this goes back to the sort of ancientshaolin temple-- mastery and control of body yieldingmastery and control of mind. so you go frombasically going on a dial-up modem-- i'm just abrain on a stick, disembodied, disconnected, only perceivingand receiving information

through one data feed-- intobroadband or even satellite. i am now picking up allchannels available to me as a sensing cognition machine. and those neuron nets arenow fired and wired together. next, rich environments. think about thedifference in a surfer or a skier, big mountainskier, any of these things, between just playing ping-pong. and every day that ping-pongtable is exactly the same.

and my paddle is. and the ball bouncesthe same way. it all works. and i can kind of check out. but in a situationwhere the environment is so rich it's overwhelmingand stimulating, it actually sort of can knockout my waking sense of self and forces me to payexplicit, acute attention because if i don't,i get knocked down.

and lastly, highconsequences, which i just kind of foreshadowed. in fact, oscar wildei think famously said, there's nothinglike the prospect of being hung in themorning to clear one's mind. so immediate high consequenceshave this wonderful effect, which is very hardin this day and age. we're always elsewhereand elsewhen. i'm thinking about tomorrow.

i'm on my phones. i'm pitching this. i'm posting that. like high consequences bring meback into the incontrovertible now. it is the only placethat flow can happen. and if i get out of it,if i drift, i get spanked. and it hurts and i learn. now, think about how much ofour learning and experiences

these days are disconnected fromthose kind of tight feedback loops. so let's translate thisto your guys' world a little bit becausethat's the beauty. and this would justbe kind of a curiosity if it didn't matterto us as well. so think aboutrich environments. you guys are obviously in one. the cross pollination--a lot of the sort

of cutting edge organizationaldesign of workplaces, whether it's atpixar with the atrium and the serendipitous meetings. whether it's your guys'cafeterias and restaurants, with the linesand the management and all of your commonsareas explicitly designed to createnovel, changing environments, high consequences. i mean obviously, next doorfacebook's got the shit fast,

break stuff, lean and agiledesign and development. the entrepreneurialmentalities that you guys have where failure is expectedbecause if you're not failing, you're not learning asrapidly as you might. and deep embodiment, i meanit's no mistake i think that you guys here at google,with founders who were both montessori children--which in the flow research is the most flow-proneeducational method in the world, with sensorial,manipulative children sweeping

and cutting and actually usingbody and brain simultaneously, as well as the founders'passion for all things action sports and adventure,the dna of this place is pretty much set up to beabout an optimal an environment for cultivating this asanywhere you could think of. so steven describedthe five neurochemicals and described theneuroanatomy a little bit. but let's put this in motion. let's actually put thisin time, through time

as we might experience it. because what this is, whatwe're calling the flow genome matrix, which is literallywhat's the genome? what are the core components? how do they work. and if we have that knowledge,what can we do with it? and just so youguys kind of track the research, the lineagebehind this model, this comes largely outof herbert benson's work

at harvard, as well asdr. lesley sherlinis, who is the sort of madscientist, eeg guy behind a lot of theseal team and red bull work that we justmentioned earlier. but let's just take alook at this process because the first thing todispel is that flow is a state. so it comes and it goes. it's not an everon kind of thing. but it's not likea light switch.

it's not just, it's onand i'm in it, or it's off and i'm someplace else. it's a cycle. and it has at leastfour distinct stages. so if we take a lookat how those progress, the first-- whether you'rea more of a fan of m. scott peck and "the road lesstraveled" or buddha and his noble truths,either way, life's a bitch. life is struggle.

and that's how it starts. and we start by beingin over our heads. we start by finding ourselvesin a situation or a condition-- and this could be latenight code delivery. this could be some new,big business problem. it could be relational,whatever it is. and we start out of our depth. and we end up with abit of a sort of angel and a devil dialogueon our shoulder.

so our prefrontal cortex thathouses our executive function, what we normally thinkas me and the thing we've been rewarded in schooland rewarded in work for being smart andcontrolled and precise and delivering things ontime, we try and solve it full frontal assault. but the problem isbigger than that. it's bigger thanour capabilities. so we start togglingback to kind

of our primitive senseof self, our amygdala, and is this a fightor flight situation? do i need to pull the rip cord? and meanwhile, my brain wavesare in quite rapid beta. this is me trying tosolve binary problems and this may not be one. and then i startgetting cortisol and i start gettingadrenaline in my system. and i'm reallystarting to get jacked.

and it's either i'm goingto collapse at this point, right, it's going to bea fetal position or-- or has anybody ever like puton boxing gloves at the gym or tried to dosomething like that and then you getlike mike tyson? you say everybody's got aplan until they get hit? have you guys ever experiencedan adrenalized response where your knees are wobbly? or even if it's just like coplights in the car behind you

and it drives by. and it just pools in yourlegs and you're like grrh. and you still feel likeyou need to like puke on the side of the road. that's the adrenaline response. so that'll take most of us out. unless, either through justsheer fatigue, or dumb luck, or knowing that there'sthis actually loop on then, i get into the next phase, whichis the relaxation response.

and typically, andsort of pro tip, when they did the researchwith the darker snipers, as well as olympic archersand everybody else, the way they gotinto this, the way they made that shiftwas focusing on breath. so tip of the hat to all yourguys' meditation practices. focus on breath, loweryour respiratory rate. and you startapproaching equilibrium. nitrous oxide entersthe bloodstream

and flushes away thefight or flight chemicals, flushes away thecortisol, flushes away the norepinephrine. and then brings in thedopamine, the endorphins, and the anandamide. at that point, my brainwaves go from faster beta into a slower alpha wave. and i'm right there on thedoorstep of the flow state. i move into the flow state.

and again, thereare four gradations. i mean you can havewhat steven had, which was this sort ofspontaneous, healing, quasi-mystical experience,like, ah, man, i'm one with everything. or you could just have it,hey, all the lights were green and i got to workfive minutes early. how's it going? so the point here is that if yougo into the deeper flow state,

you don't just hang out in thatalpha where i'm resourceful, i've got insights. i actually move into aneven deeper, slower state known as theta. and typically, that'sone that only shows up in lifetime meditators. any of the studies at madisonon tibetan meditators, that's what you would see thoseguys be able to get into way more often than us.

and the other time is kind ofin that threshold between waking and sleeping. so if you've ever beenlying on the couch and you're watching tv-- "westwing" used to do this to us all the time, just soporific, grrh. but in that moment beforeyou're unconscious, you're in a hypnogogic state. and it's so deeply relaxed,most of us just miss it. we just go to sleep.

we nod off. but if you've gotdiscipline and training, you can actually stay thereand be alert and aware. and there and only there cancome these lightning bolts of gamma. and that becomes thesegestalt integrations. that become sort of yourchocolate and my peanut butter and yee-haw, wegot some reese's. it becomes those moments ofmassive lateral integration

that absolutely change the game. and finally-- and this is acritical stage that most of us forget about. we just don't-- oops,i just did that. there we go. most of us forget aboutthe recovery phase. but i'm sure you guys havecome across all this stuff within the learningtheory, which is that when wethink we're learning,

we're not really learning. when we're doing stuff, allwe're doing is collecting data. and that most of ourpattern consolidation and actually annexingof new skills is happening as wesleep, and specifically when we sleep, in delta waves. so by no means are we justhave camping out for the week after a flow state in delta. we wanted to highlight that alot of that integration, a lot

of my level up towhat's possible for me now occurs in the deltafrequencies of deep sleep. so that in a nutshellis the cycle. and think about what this means? because now that we knowthis we can hack it. and what's so interestingand exciting about that is that think about the entirethere sort of human development track, including mindfulness,including optimal psychology, including tons of thewonderful stuff that's

both present insidethis organization and kind of happening more andmore in the world, most of it is trying to get our waking,conscious selves, our egos, to go quiet, backto steven's slide with our inner woody allen. but that's a realtar baby experience. because if i'mreading a book on how to get rid of the very partof me that's reading the book, it's kind of like hidingyour own easter eggs.

it's pernicious. it's sticky. and the more i strugglewith it, the stucker i get. that's why you see so manyuptight baby boomers at esalen. i mean it's one ofthose situations. i'm trying so hard that icannot actually decouple from the thing i'm trying to release. so what this lets youdo is back into it. don't worry about who you arenow and trying to change it.

just optimize your bio,neuro self system and then see what your subjectiveinner experience is. and that's potentially gamechanging and that's kind of right where we are onthe verge of these days. so i want to leaveyou guys with steven, on just kind of a sense ofthe direction of things, where things are going next. and then we'd love to inviteyour questions or queries and potentially just havea conversation of what's

possible. thank you very much guys. steven kotler: so two things. jamie gave you a look, highconsequence, deep embodiment, rich environment. these are three flow triggers. there are, we believe,17 total flow triggers. there are these threeenvironmental triggers. they're external triggers.

there are threeinternal triggers. these arepsychological triggers. there are 10 social triggers. there is a shared versionof a the flow state, a collective versionknown as group flow. there are 10 triggersthat bring that on. and as far as we know, thereis one creative trigger. there is also the flow cycle,which we just broke down. so the flow cyclesort of functions

as a map for the experience. and the triggerstell you what to do, where you are in that map. the really importantthing and the thing that i want to leaveyou with is that we are at the very, very frontedge of this research. we have a prettysolid understanding of the psychology of flow. we understand the neurobiology.

what we don't know is huge. we don't know, for example,the order of the cascade. neural chemicals proceed. neuroanatomical changes proceed. brain waves, we don't know. nobody has a clue. and the physiologicalquestions, right? we've got mind. we've got brain.

but what's actuallygoing on in the body, we're at the front, frontedge of that revolution. we're just starting toanswer those questions. and we're not going to reallyget all this done until we have what we're calling aheat map of flow which maps the psychologyonto the neurobiology, onto the physiology. and the reason i'mtelling you all this is we know fromthe mckinsey study

that top executives are fivetimes more productive in flow. we know thataction-and-adventure sports athletes have producednear exponential growth in ultimate human performance. but we are just askedgetting started. if you talk to a lotof people in this world and ask them what percentof our capabilities do you think we'veactually used, even with all this kind of flowhacking stuff that we're doing,

the answer you getis 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% 5%. i've never actuallyheard anybody give an answer above 5%. which is to saywe are at the very front end of this revolution. the near exponential growthin ultimate human performance showing up inaction-and-adventure sports may not be the endpoint. it may be the startingpoint for possibility.

so that's where i wantto leave you guys. and then we'll open it up. we'll take questions. we'll have a discussion,whatever you want. but thank you somuch for listening. audience: so thanksa lot for the talk. i'm a snow boarder, a kitesurfer, a motorcycler. and now i realize why ilike those things so much. i guess it was pretty evident.

but there was alsoresearch that showed that people who ride motorcyclesregularly kind of live longer. [inaudible] your research-- steven kotler: it definitely--i mean it certainly jives with what we know aboutflow and the immune system. but i would just assume thatmost who ride motorcycles actually probably die younger. audience: that's ok.

accidents aside, yes. but what i wantedto ask is generally like in the computerworld-- or we also have several coursesat google here that claim that if youoverclock your processor, the lifespan decreases. and what you claimingwith your research or some of the research you mentionedis that it actually improves various aspects and createslong-term positive effects.

is that true? steven kotler: flow? audience: yeah. yeah. having more flowin your life, which means overclockingyour processor. and you mentionedabout the release state and the importance of that. and i think we haveseveral courses.

and [inaudible] and that talkabout that and how important it is to take breaks andstuff like that and so on. but what i'minterested in is let's say i find a way to inducemore flow in my life. is it actually going to alsoproduce like long term-- or am i going to dieearly, like steve jobs? steven kotler: ok. so there's two kind ofanswers to this question. the first is thatthe research shows

that the people with themost flow in their lives are quote, unquote "thehappiest people on earth." that is something of a misnomer. so flow always, always,always, always includes kind of pushingyourself to the utmost. you're rising to the challenge. one of thepsychological triggers is known as thechallenge/skills ratio. so all of these flowtriggers that we

talk about, high consequence,deep embodiment, et cetera, flow follows focus. so all of theseflow triggers are ways of drivingattention to the now. so one of the ways we know wepay the most attention when the skills we bring tothe task are slightly less than the challenge at hand. it's known as thechallenge/skills ratio. flow exists when we arestretching, but not snapping.

you are constantly risingto meet your challenge. the studies show thatflow correlates directly to life satisfaction. you get more meaning. you get more purpose. happiness is fleeting. it's in the moment. it's i feel reallygood right now. that may not alwaysbe the case with flow

because rising tochallenges are difficult. it's uncomfortable. i always say that people whoget really good at flow hacking, get really, really goodat being uncomfortable. the other thing i wanted tosay to kind of go back this is-- and i want to talk aboutwhy this is not self-help. and it's not self-helpfor a couple of reasons. on the positiveside, self-help is about 5% increase, 10% increase.

it's about three thingsi can tell you today that you can startdoing tomorrow and your life isgoing to get better. flow is not like that at all. it is not 5%. it's not 10%. it is a stepfunction-worth of change. it is a big shift forward. but it comes at a price.

flow is dangerous. these neurochemicalsare very addictive. so you're playingwith fundamentally addictive neurochemistry. flow always requireswhat we call an escalating ladder of risk. you're going to keep takinggreater and greater chances, pushing yourself farther,and farther, and farther. that can get dangerous as well.

and you're also playingwith very fundamental human motivations, autonomy,mastery, and purpose, which is sort of what passionlooks like under the hood. these are all big flow triggers. these all show up in flow. they all produce more flow. you don't get to play withaddictive neurochemistry and these kind offundamental human motivations without danger.

people find themselves--they join a startup. they get into lots of flow. startups are greatat producing flow for a lot of different reasons. a lot of the flow triggersare kind of concentrated in startups. and then the startup phaseends and they're sort of locked out of flow. there is a depressionthat can come from this.

if you get a lot offlow in your life and some day are locked out,you can get very, very, very deeply depressed. jamie wheal: just tospeak specifically to your overclocking theprocessor piece as well, which is that the action sportsathletes, when the swell is breaking for[inaudible] in maui, like they all sitand do nothing. it's kind of almost ahunter/gather style.

we sit around, we tellstories, we talk shit, and then somethingbig and crazy happens. we go and do it. and then the swell has come. the big storm has gone. and i have a natural downtime. and so that's my lifeas an action sports athlete cultivating flow. but what's my life in yourguys' world as knowledge workers

cultivating flow? i do it. i crush the project. i come up with a novel solution. what happens to me then? i get promoted. and so the pressure in ourcontrolled environments to continue to do it and tocontinue to tap and to go back. and now, i'm just revvingat a higher level.

and i've got all kinds ofobligations and commitments to do this on command,i think is real. and that-- which we don'thave up now, but back to that recovery phase-- becomesvital to ensure that i'm fully replenishing that very expensivestate i've just produced. that i'm annexing theinformation and that i'm stably integrating itinto my both psychology and physiology. audience: and thequestion is, for example,

all these sport or energydrinks can boost your adrenalin and stuff. it looks like it doesn'tgo really well with flow. like you can't releasebecause your body is like filled with chemicalsthat actually boost you up. and so, for example, red bulland all these pro athletes, how does it go together? steven kotler: it'sa tricky question. and part of the answeris we don't know.

but one of the thingsthat it does appear is that at the frontend of the flow state, you've got cortisol rising,that norepinephrine rising. if there's too much ofthat stuff-- and a lot of these energydrinks flood the body with more of thesechemicals-- it does appear that that canblock the relaxation response. so essentiallywhat's happening when you go from kind ofthe heightened focus

and the struggle phaseinto the relaxation sometimes, that'swhen the switch from conscious to subconsciousprocessing is taking place. norepinephrine sort of, whenyou have too much of it, it functions sort of like ocd. you can't let go. you're holding on to theproblem and you're thinking it, you're thinking it,and you're thinking it. and that could absolutelyblock the release state.

it could block therest of the flow state. that said, there's caffeine. there's a whole bunch ofother things in red bull. you can say that red bull is aflow precursor in some cases. it can be a flow blocker. it's very individual. and neurochemistryappears to be individual. all of our receptors,our receptors for these neurochemicals areessentially coded genetically,

how receptive they are. so it really could differat an individual level. and we just don't now. jamie wheal: and onthe healthy side, if you really are lookingfor something like what might i take or do, the mostinteresting stuff-- and i just down at red bull on fridayand was talking with a ph.d. candidate specializing intothis, which is-- nitric oxide, we talked about, right,was the neurotransmitter

that prompts you go fromstruggle to release. the best exogenous form of itis high concentrate beet juice. it's high nitrate. most pro-endurance athletesin the world are using it. it sort of debuted in betweenbeijing and maybe even london as far asthe olympic stuff. and there's acompany, james smith, which we have noaffiliation with. but they're out of england.

they're royal insignia stuff. and they do the bothhigh nitrate, measured in joule shots, aswell as placebo ones. so all the academiccommunity globally uses them. so two or three hours afteringestion of high nitrate beet juice, it can transforminto nitric oxide. and that's potentially,as far as healthy. and actually has somemechanical impact on this. it's probably one of thebest things to look at.

audience: sorry. i don't want to talk too much. and omega-3 might havesome positive influence on like getting into flow. is it like researchsome behind it? jamie wheal: what might? audience: omega-3. jamie wheal: that'sa mixed bag, man. i mean in the lastsix months, there's

been a fair amount of sortof not so positive stuff on omega-3's, and just questionson prostate cancer in men, and various other sortof ancillary things. that said, the chief physicianfor the coronado seal teams gave a presentation specificallyon the role of fish oils and high-grade fishoils, on depression, on physiologicalrecovery, on sort of stability of mentalstates, all kinds of things. and their evidence,at least with the data

sets they were working with,was overwhelmingly positive. so i don't know right now. and i kind of wish i didbecause i like that certainty. audience: so youmentioned the researcher who had done a lot of workon the brain waves and then with your diagram. can you tell usa little bit more about him or herand how they came up with their research, et cetera?

steven kotler: yeah,dr. leslie sherlin. he is probably theworld's leading researcher on kind of the brainwaves, neuroelectricity of high performance. he-- five yearsago, six years, i don't know when they actuallystarted the project-- he teamed up with red bull. so there was at guyred bull, whose name is andy walshe,a friend of ours,

who's the head ofhigh performance. his job is to take thebest athletes in the world and make them better. he teamed up withleslie and they built essentially aneuroscience skunkworks. so the problem witheeg has been noise. so i can put an eeg on your headand i can look at brain waves. but if you yawn, if youblink, all that stuff is going to registeras static, as noise.

it's going obscure the signal. so motion, which isif you want to look at action-and-adventure sportathletes, it's a real problem. and we've only recentlygotten to the point that our algorithms can actuallyfilter out the noise of motion. so leslie has developedwhat they call brain sport. it's a wireless, portable eeg. and i think they'velooked at 5,000 athletes. they've comparedthe top 1% athletes,

the elite of the elite, withthe top 5%, with the top 20%. and just kind of lookedat them across the board. so that's where a lot ofthis research came from. jamie wheal: yeah. and actually justto finish on that, the interesting thing they foundwas there was not a default mo. there wasn't aconsistent pattern. it wasn't like theaction-and-sports athletes all performed like tibetanmonks or something like that.

but what theyrealized was it was almost like the shockabsorber on a motorcycle. it was resilience andthe ability to-- they could come into theflow state from a bunch of different locations,depending on sports-specific, genealogy, training, whatever. but it was their resilienceand their adaptiveness that distinguished the elitefrom even the advanced right below them.

audience: a quickquestion on audio stimuli. i know there are softwareprograms, cds out there, that can supposedlybring your mind down to these differentwave patterns. have you done anyresearch on that? if those thingsactually work or if they can help advance the flow? steven kotler: i'mgoing to let jaime talk about this in a second.

but there's onething i really want to say because it's a pet peeve. it makes me crazy. there are a lot ofcompanies out there who are, hey, thisproduces flow. and its singlecorrelate research. it's we can get your brainwaves to alpha-theta. or there's some data that sayscardiac coherence produces flow, and blah, blah.

so there's a lot ofcompanies, a lot of widgets, and a lot of things thattrigger one of these things. flow is a huge cascade. it's a full body/brain reaction. there is nothing outthere that produces-- except some of thework that we're doing at the flowgenome project. and we're not there yet. but we're sure trying to map it.

but most everything's that'sout there is a single correlate thing. so we've got music thatcan drive your brain waves towards alpha,towards alpha-theta. that's great. that's neat. it's going to produceparts of this experience. but it is a full-on,deep flow experience with a full neurochemical dump?

no. there's nothing thatsays that it can happen. and there's notany evidence of it. so these single correlatefixes, they're getting at it. they're moving inthe right direction. but the truth claimsmake me pretty nervous. and simply fromthe research i've seen, bineural beats, which iswhat you'll see a lot of those. and they staggerthemselves slightly

and it's supposed toentrain your brain. i haven't seen a lot ofcorroborating research to actually support allof those truth claims. the stuff that has had a littlebit stronger evidence based on backing is isochronicbrain wave entrainment. and the nice thingabout it is you don't have to haveheadphones on. you can actuallyjust listen to it. but even beyond that--i mean there's a reason

that the whole electronicscene has blown up so hugely in the lastfive to 10 years. there's a reason,burning man culture, all of those bits and pieces, isthat very high fidelity, loud, cleanly separatedsounds absolutely have a psychodynamic effect. and you can takethat to west africa. i mean there's ancienttraditions on that. so even without the fancytechnology under the hood

that someone may beselling you, clearly music has a powerfulpsychosomatic effect. audience: how do thesympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems comeinto play in all this? jamie wheal: well,can you go ahead and just take another couple ofsteps into that and give us a-- so specifically in the struggle,release, recovery-- or sorry, struggle, release, flow recoveryphases you showed earlier, the struggle phasekind of reminded me

of what i had heardvery anecdotally and unscientifically about thesympathetic nervous system. and then the alpha waveskind of reminded me of the parasympatheticnervous system. and i was wonderingif that's true? i mean the shortanswer is don't know. and i think it'sthe tracking-- i mean being able to trackthe neurotransmitters in a live human, right,tricky, as well as to be

able to havemultivariable sensing. so just to give youguys an understanding, like where is the marketplace? where's the cutting edge? so we mentioned that darker,quantified warrior project. they love the red bull guysbecause the red bull guys are just trying realstuff with people. they're actually outthere with their athletes and trying to get them better.

where government and militaryprojects are much more kind of-- just the way theymove, and innovate, and think is just distinct. and so they lovethe red bull guys because they're trying stuff. we go to the redbull guys and we're talking with the scientists. and we're like, hey, have youput this together with that? well, what aboutthese three things?

and even those guys,bless their hearts, aren't actually doing anintegrated, multivariable metrics and management. so the short answeris we don't know yet. and i would picturethat those are the kind of fascinatingquestions that hopefully in the next fiveyears or so we'll be starting to help facilitate thoseconversations and those [inaudible].

audience: is the fightor flight response, would that be an example orsymptom of that struggle phase? steven kotler: so thefight or flight is. it's one example. it's one extreme example. but when you talk to theaction-and adventure sport athletes about it,what they will tell you is that they ride theheightened focus of the fight or flight response in the flow.

they sort of get into thegap before actually the fear becomes an emotion. they see it kind ofrising and they just ride that focus into flowand block that response. flow is flowy becauseits choice is wide open. one of the reasons you can makealmost picture-perfect decision making is because youhave lots of options. you're taking in moreinformation, et cetera, et cetera.

in the fight or flightresponse, your options are fight, flight, or flee. it's totally the opposite. so you are right, it istotally the opposite. but you can rideone into the other. jamie wheal: so thefirst thing is, yeah, anyone in their rightmind should be afraid when you're rolling the dice on16 feet per second per second. so natural and healthy.

and then the question is,is it back to steven's point about the challenge and skills? is it enough out of my comfortzone that i am nowhere else? in fact, i have a friend whois the ceo of a big company. he says i don't like road bikingbecause when i'm on the road, i'm still in my day. i love that trail that weride because i am nowhere else for the three minutesit takes to get down it. and so the beauty is can i findthat place where i'm nowhere

else, but not in the hospital? [laughter] steven kotler: most people havehad tons of flow experiences. you probably have themalmost on a daily basis and you don'tactually realize it. and here's why. flow exists on a spectrum. it like any emotion,like anger, right? you can be a little irate or youcan be homicidally murderous.

so there's micro-flow whenaction and awareness start to mere, maybe timestarts to dilate, and you're paying attentionto the [inaudible]. macro-flow, where you get all ofthe various conditions of flow at once. if you've ever lost yourselfin a great conversation, the whole afternoon disappears. if you've ever gotten sosucked into a work project that nothing else seems tomatter for a little while,

those are allmicro-flow experiences. they're on the samespectrum leading up to these giant, deepflow experiences. so, as i said, thereare 17 flow triggers. the more flow triggers thatget packed into an event, the greater thechance you're going to move into a reallylike truly deep flow experience rather thana micro-flow experience. but we have thesemicro-flow experiences.

we recognize deep flow. we know it immediately,time dilated or something. like you're like, oh, mygod, i'm in that state. but what we miss is that we'rein micro-flow all the time. and if you actually canstart watching for it, you can start extendingit and deepening it. you can play with it andreally start to utilize it. steven kotler: by the way,when they do flow studies, as a manager, one ofthe most common flow

experiences among middlemanagers in conversation at work. why? work usually involves money. so it's high consequence. it's a higherconsequence environment. and then you start lookingat the social triggers, group flow. work conversationstend to drive them.

you don't have them incasual conversations at home when you're hangingout with your friends. but work conversations tendto produce this more often. can you tell us a bitmore about the flow dojo? and is there a physicalspace that exists? what are you doing there? when do you plan todo with the dojo? jamie wheal: what i'll do isi'll just describe it to you. but yes, i meanour answer really

is what would it belike to sort of combine a montessori-preparedenvironment, but for grown-ups, and exploratory style,interactive, sort of exhibits in installations? but instead of for science, haveit be for embodied cognition, with a sprinkling of x-games. so you have fun, safe ways togive people the sensorimotor inputs that these athletestypically use themselves and then put a layer ofquantified self on top of it.

so giant geodesic domeplayground training centers, whereby we can alltrain our games. we can all burn and fuseadditional neural pathways. and we can put ourselvesinto that nonseeking state of hyperperformance. and ultimately backto the drowning in information,starving for motivation. at least our assessment of mostdevelopmental technologies-- there's so much greatstuff out there.

most of us fail inlong-term practice. so if we can go backto that autotelic piece and harness flow statesin service of whatever my goals in life and workare, but ultimately even the following of well-wornlineage paths in the wisdom traditions or whatever elseis up, if we can do that, it's something pretty amazing. and certainly communitieswith you guys, places like this wherethere's such sort

of high-value humancapital, the ability to optimize that, both in themoment and longitudinally, feels really useful. it feels like a wayto help impact it. steven kotler: let me addtwo quick things to that. one, the more flow you have,the more flow you have. so this all about attention. you're training thebrain go into the flow. so you can train the brain onthe ski slope to go into flow.

it's going to bleed intoyour work at the office. you're going to find yourselfgetting to flow more easily. if you can learn how to do thisone area, it transfers over. and i want to justkind of give you an ephemeral lookat the flow dojo. i want to give you just kindof like this is the gear, this is what we're doing,this is what it looks like. one of things we have-- andthere's lots and lots of toys-- but one thing is we have isa 20-foot looping surf swing.

so you stand on a surfboard. your feet are strapped in. your writs are strapped in. and you can be upside down, 25feet off the ground or pulling 3 and 1/2 gees at thebottom of the loop. so you've got high consequence,novelty, unpredictability, and complexity, ourrich environment, lots of those things as well. all of those flowtriggers are there.

so we've got that. simultaneously, you are wearingleslie sherline and the brain sport helmet, the eeg helmet. so we know flow existsnear alpha-theta. so the entire giant surfswing is lined in led lights. so it is real-timeneurofeedback. so you're wearing this thing. you're pulling allthese flow triggers. but you can alsodrive your brain.

if you are inalpha-theta, it glows red. if you are in beta, it's blue. so you have real-timeneurofeedback. and to solve the mystery--because our real goal-- well, one of our real goalsis to really advance flow science and culture--you are wired head to toe with all the quantifiedself, data-gathering stuff. so not only are we using theseflow triggers and neurofeedback to drive you into flow, we aredata capturing along the way.

and i hate the term "big data." i don't think it means anything. but hopefully, this allow usto take a big data approach to flow, which hasn'tbeen done before. csikszentmihalyi did itat psychological level. nobody has done it at theneurobiological level. and that's what this is about. audience: have youconsidered looking into the personalizationaspect of flow?

because i'm notsure that everybody experiences flowin the same way. i mean not for thesame activities. for example, some people thisyou studied are like athletes. but-- i don't know. i mean there arescientists who think that differently, et cetera. there's all this research aboutpersonality types, et cetera. the gallup organizationitself, to solve their problem

of 71% of engagement,developed their own system, which is called strengthsfinder. steven kotler: yeah. sure. audience: and i think peoplewho use their talents according to them are a kind oflike in the flow states because they areusing their talents. jamie wheal: yes. exactly.

so what is my typology? what kind of aperson am i and what is my unique signatureand entry points? absolutely. we've actuallybeen doing, again, a very preliminary, butintriguing initial flow profile. and we've had severalthousand folks take it just in the lastthree or four weeks.

and interestingly-- thecategories we had was hard-charger, so the classicaction sports profile we just described and most of what youjust described; a deep thinker, someone a little bitmore introspective, potentially doingcoding or creative work; one more socially oriented; andthen potentially one more sort of--- the quintessential kindof [? loewe haas ?] personality types, sort of the yoga,meditation, et cetera. and 50% of the respondentswere deep thinkers.

they actually foundthemselves more introverted, quiet,reflective avenues into flow. and again, tosteven's point, what we anticipate-- i mean i wouldbe stunned if it didn't show up this way-- is that there is nosuch thing as a monolithic flow state, as we really get into it. there will be kind of ascatter plot on a heat map. and it will dependon the person, it will depend onthe environment,

and it will dependon the tasks at hand, how exactly they get in there,which cascade they trigger and to what extent. and we will see probablyareas of clustering. but probably a much broader,complex equation than we first talk about. steven kotler: and theone thing i want to add is we talk about theaction-and-adventure sports athletes as this greatexample of flow hacking.

but we're in silicon valley. the three things thatbuilt this valley are network design, circuitdesign, and software design pretty much. and you can't do anyof those things well, really, reallywell, without flow. coding and flowgoes hand in hand. the research goes all the back. the same thing withall those categories.

so if you're looking for anonathletic example of what happens when groups of peoplestart getting into flow on a regular basis,silicon valley is not a bad place to start. male speaker: big handfor steven and jamie. thank you. steven kotler: thanks guys.

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